Province: Napo - Orellana
Extension: 205.751 hectares
Year of creation: 1.994
Altitude range: 500 – 3 732 msnm
Weather: 5 - 25 degrees
Humidity: 80 - 90%
The park is made up of two blocks. The largest has an area of 193,990 hectares and includes the Sumaco volcano (3,732 m), the Pan de Azúcar hill (3,482 m) and the Cerro Negro (3,127 m). The smallest block, of 11,761 hectares, is located south of the Sumaco volcano and corresponds to the Napo - Galeras mountain range, whose highest point is 1,730 m. The Sumaco volcano is little known because it is in an inhospitable area. There is no more information about its eruptions, but it is estimated that in recent times there have been no eruptive events of consideration, since it maintains an almost perfect conical shape. Dense jungle vegetation has invaded all its flanks, except for some cracks and the crater itself, which has a diameter of about 270 meters.
Research on human settlements in this area reveals indications of the ancestral existence of populations. The existing relief and topography seem to have been sufficient natural barriers to restrict human presence. The most populated centers closest to the protected area are the cities of Tena, Archidona, Cosanga, Baeza, El Chaco and Santa Rosa de Borja, all of them along the road that connects Tena with Baeza and Lago Agrio.
Around the park are located communes, populated centers and cities inhabited mostly by indigenous Kichwas of the Amazon. This ethnic group, especially of Archidona, has a special relationship with the Galeras mountain range, which they consider sacred. The nearest town, called Sumaco Pact, has a unique history. After the earthquake of 1987, with the opening of the Hollín-Loreto road, people arrived in search of a new opportunity. Over time, the settlement of Sumaco Pact was established, a name that many say is due to a promise made among its inhabitants to live in harmony in that place.
The few studies carried out indicate a great diversity of ecosystems: humid tropical forests in the lowlands, located at 500 m altitude; montane forests in the foothills of hills and mountains; to an area of wasteland on top of the Sumaco. There are many species restricted to small valleys or mountains that have particular microclimates. This situation increases the diversity of some groups such as orchids, birds and amphibians, which find an incredible amount of living space in the montane forests of this park.
Among the most representative trees are cedar, colorado, porotillo and copal; Among the palms we have the chonta and the chambira, from which the fiber is extracted to make shigras and hammocks.
Mammals include jaguar, puma, tigrillo, tapir or danta, mate head, sloth and guangana.